Screening of pediatric eye disease at home by using camera of mobile phone

  • Yu.V. Barinov National Pediatric Specialized Hospital «OKHMATDYT» Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kiev https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6562-0428
  • L.O. Lysytsia National Pediatric Specialized Hospital «OKHMATDYT» Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kiev
Keywords: red reflex; congenital eye pathology; screening; blindness prophylaxis.

Abstract

The simplest method of screening eye pathology in infant is red reflex examination. Present, absence or change of red reflex is key point in early detection of eye pathology. 
Objective – establish possibility using of mobile phone camera for eye pathology screening at home.
Materials and methods. 750 children were included in research. Patient parents allowed photo their child before ophthalmology exam. First step was taking photo on parent’s mobile telephone in playing room from different distance and lighting. Second step was photo in exam room in mesopic condition in 1, 2 and 4 m distance with using maximum zoom and then ophthalmologic exam.  After that, all photos was analysed by next signs:    present or absence of red reflex,  intensive of red reflex,   present or absence pathology shadow, in case of red reflex changing, distance where changing is best viewed, comparison photo with result of ophthalmology exam.  
Results. After analysing photos all children was divided in three groups depending on red reflex chan-ging. In the first group red reflex was even without additional shadow, same in both eye. In this group after ophthalmology exam ametropy low level and eyelid pathology was diagnosed. In the second group red reflex was irregular by colour with additional light shadow or different intensity of red reflex in both eye. Ametropy high level was diagnosed in this group. In the third group we observed absence or colour change of red reflex. Cataract, congenital glaucoma, retinoblastoma, retinal and choroidal coloboma, Coats retinitis was diagnosed. Changing of red reflex possible to find on all photos from different distance, but the most informative was photo that was done from 1 m in mesopic condition.  
Conclusion. By equability and colour changing of red reflex on photo, all children may divided in three groups: 1 – children require only prophylactic ophthalmology exam, 2 – children require additional ophthalmology exam, 3 – children require immediate ophthalmology exam.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Cagini C. Red reflex screening highly sensitive for anterior segment abnormalities. J Pediatr. 2017 May;184:235-8. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.02.053.

Ming Sun, Aihua Ma, Fengjiao Li et al. Sensativity and specificity of red reflex test in newborn eye screening. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;179:192-6. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.08.048

Subhi Y, Schmidt DC, Al-Bakri M et al. Diagnostic test accuracy of the red reflex test for ocular pathology in infants: a meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov 12;e204854. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.4854.

LaMattina CK, Vagge A, Nelson LB. Can the red reflex test detect unequal refractive error. J Pediatr. 2019 Nov;214:175-177. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.06.051.

Red reflex examination in infants. Section on Ophthalmology. American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):980-1.

Lebedeva IS, Hacenko IE, Sturov NV i dr. Strukturnye osobennosti golovnogo mozga rebenka pri odnostoronnej ambliopii. MRT-issledovanie. Zhurnal nevrologii i psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova. Spec-vyp. (In Russian) 2018;118(5):69-74 doi: 10.17116/jnevro20181185269

Calgini C, Tosi G, Stracci F et al. Red reflex examination in neonates: evaluation of 3 years of scree- ning. Int Ophthalmol. 2017 Oct;37(5):1199-204. doi:10.1007/s10792-016-0393-2.

Diaz AM, Pamplona AP, Balparda K. Evaluation of the red reflex in the paediatric patient: do we perform it enough? Semergen. 2013;39(5):286-8. doi:10.1016/j.semerg.2013.01.011

Muen W, Hindocha M, Reddy M. The role of education in the promotion of red reflex assessments. JRSM Short Rep. 2010 Oct 26;1(5):46. doi:10.1258/shorts.2010.010036.

Aguiar AS, Ximenes LB, Lucio I, Pagliuca L, Cardoso M. Association of the red reflex in newborns with neonatal variables. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2011; 19(2):309-16. doi:10.1590/s0104-11692011000200012.

Baldino VMCLB, Eckert GU, Rossatto J, Wagner MB. Red reflex test at the maternity hospital: results from a tertiary hospital and variables associated with inconclusive test results. Pediatr. Rio J. 2020;96(6):748-54. doi:10.1016/j.jped.2019.08.007

Bhayana AA, Prasad P, Azad SV. Refractive errors and the red reflex- Bruckner test revisited. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Aug;67(8):1381-2. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2107_18.

Bell AL, Rodes ME, Collier Kellar L. Childhood eye examination. Am Fam Physician. 2013 Aug 15;88(4):241-8.

Khokhar S, Pillay G, Agarwal E. Pediatric cataracta – importance of early detection and managment. Indian J Pediatr. 2018 Mar;85(3):209-16. doi:10.1007/s12098-017-2482-2.

Leiba H, Flidel-Rimon O, Juster-Reicher A, Shinwell ES, Eventov-Friedmans. The red reflex examination in neonates: an efficient tool for early diagnosis of congenital ocular diseases. Isr Med Assoc J. 2010;12:259-61.

Ludwig CA, Callaway NF, Blumenkranz MS, Fredrick DR, Moshfeghi DM. Ophtalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018 Feb 1;49(2):103-10. doi:10.3928/23258160-20180129-04.

Mansoor N, Mansoor T, Ahmed M. Eye pathologies in neonates. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016 Dec 18;9(12):1832-8. doi:10.18240/ijo.2016.12.22

Mussavi M, Asadollahi K, Janbaz F, Mansoori, Abbasi N. The evaluation of red reflex sensitivity and specificity test among neonates in different conditions. Iran J Pediatr. 2014;24:697-702.

Raoof N, Dai S. Red reflex screening in New Zealan: a large survey of practices and attitudes in the Auckland region. N Z Med J. 2016 Jul 15;129(1438):38-43.

Wan MJ, van der Veen DK. Eye disorders in newborn infants (excluding retinopathy of prematurity). Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015 May;100(3):F264-9. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306215.

Litmanovitz I, Dolfin T. Red reflex examination in neonates: the need for early screening. Isr Med Assoc J. 2010 May;12(5):301-2.

Published
2020-12-31
How to Cite
Barinov, Y., & Lysytsia, L. (2020). Screening of pediatric eye disease at home by using camera of mobile phone. Endovascular Neuroradiology, 33(3), 12-18. https://doi.org/10.26683/2304-9359-2020-3(33)-12-18