Experience with the dexmedetomidine for sedation in pediatric neurosurgery in the early postoperative period
Objective ‒ to maintain the adequate sedation and analgesia without respiratory depression in children up to 4 years old with spinal cord pathology in early postoperative period (first 3 days) in inpatient department; to decrease digestive system motor function depression; to exclude aspiration possibility; to start early children’s natural feeding in postoperative period.
Materials and methods. From October 2019 to January 2020 dexmedetomidine sedation was performed by the prolonged infusion administration to 10 children (6 children aged 6 month to 1 year and 4 children up to 4 years) with spinal cord and vertebral pathology (spina bifida, meningomyelocele, myelocele, teratoma, lipoma of lumbar spine) in early postoperative period at intensive observation ward of neurosurgical department. During the first three days after the surgery and dexmedetomidine prescription the vital functions monitoring was being performed for 24 hours. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, blood saturation have been scheduled by one of the parents. The immediate access to oxygen and parent’s permission for using this sedation method were the obligatory requirements.
Results. The appropriate sedation target was achieved after the dexmedetomidine prescription for the children with the spinal cord and vertebral pathology in early postoperative period at intensive observation ward of neurosurgical department; the dosage of opioid analgesics was successfully decreased by 50 %. The respiratory depression was not observed. The blood pressure and bradycardia were not haemodynamically significant. Swallowing reflex was saved, which led to early physiological nutrition and excluded aspiration risk. The following transfer of patients after the surgery to the neurosurgical department bypassing ICU reduced the financial expenditure of the hospital.
Conclusions. Dexmedetomidine provides with the adequate sedation in early postoperative period and can be recommended for the usage in children with the spinal cord and vertebral pathology as the safest medication due to minimal cardio-respiratory complications during moderately prolonged prescribed period.
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