Autologous cell using for the restoration of functional defects in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular accident

  • E.G. Pedachenko Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv
  • V.V. Moroz Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv
  • V.A. Yatsyk Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv
  • U.I. Malyar Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv
  • L.D. Liubich Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6382-3643
  • D.M. Egorova Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv
Keywords: ischemic insult; autologic transplantation; mesenchymal stem cells; bone marrow; clinical trials.

Abstract

Stroke is a global medical and socio-economic problem and a great demand for alternative therapies, the leading one being stem cell (SC) therapy. Pathogenetic processes in ischemic stroke (II) trigger the mechanisms of necrotic and apoptotic death of neurons with the formation of the central infarct zone («core of ischemia») and the ischemic «penumbra» zone; the severity and reversibility of the injury directly depends on the duration of ischemia. In parallel with pathogenetic processes, endogenous neurogenesis occurs – the proliferation of neurogenic stem and progenitor cells (NSC/NPC) and their migration into the ischemic focus; however, most NSCs and newly formed neurons undergo apoptosis and recovery of lost functions does not occur. Significant efforts are being made to find ways to control neurogenesis, in particular through the transplantation of exogenous SCs. The main factors preventing the use of SCs in humans are moral, ethical, religious and legal aspects related to the source and method of obtaining cells, as well as possible immunocompromised complications due to incompatibility of donor cells with the recipient of the main histocompatibility complex antigens. The safest is the use of autologous SCs (the patient’s own cells), as it does not require the use of immunosuppressive protocols. Due to the relative safety and ease of production, the most common are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), namely MSCs of the bone marrow (BM). Numerous preclinical studies in experimental animals with modeled II, as well as clinical trials conducted over the past 15 years, have shown the safety and feasibility of transplantation of autologous MSCs in patients with severe neurological deficits after II. Two different approaches to the use of MSCs are discussed: neuroprotection in the acute phase and neurorestoration in the chronic phase II. Proposals are currently being developed for phase II/III clinical trials in acute and chronic stroke using BM MSCs, the results of which will form the basis for certified standardized II treatment protocols.

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Published
2020-12-31
How to Cite
Pedachenko, E., Moroz, V., Yatsyk, V., Malyar, U., Liubich, L., & Egorova, D. (2020). Autologous cell using for the restoration of functional defects in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular accident. Endovascular Neuroradiology, 33(3), 83-93. https://doi.org/10.26683/2304-9359-2020-3(33)-83-93