Clinic and diagnostics of the non-penetrating gun-shoot craniocerebral injuries in the local war
Objective ‒ to evaluate the features of the clinical manifestations and effectiveness of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) of the head for the diagnosis of non-penetrating gun-shoot head injuries in the local war.
Materials and methods. The medical data of 155 patients who received a non-penetrating gun-shoot head injuries during the war in the Eastern Ukraine between 2014‒2020 were analyzed. All patients were males between 18 and 60 years (average age ‒ 35.1 years). The peculiarities of clinical manifestations and results of diagnostic evaluation of non-penetrating gun-shoot head injuries during specialized neurosurgical care in medical institutions on the third and fourth levels of medical aid have been studied.
Results. Wide diagnostic capabilities of MSCT were revealed for determination of the wounds localization, type of the projectile, the nature of the wound channel, gunshot skull fractures, and associated intracranial injuries. It was found that with non-penetrating bullet and shrapnel tangential cranio-cerebral wounds, incomplete and depressed fractures usually occurred, and with single and multiple shrapnel blind wounds, incomplete ‒ perforated and depressed fractures with the presence of bone fragments. The pathomorphological features of the nature of the wound channels and intracranial injuries were determined. They are always associated by traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages and brain contusions, in most cases – focal. Intracranial hematomas were observed in 3.1 % of the patients.
Conclusions. Clinical manifestations of the non-penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wounds depend not only on the type of cranial soft tissue injury, but also on the nature of the skull fracture and are mainly occurred because of the severity of the traumatic brain injury. MSCT of the head makes it possible to determine the localization of the wound, the type of the wounding projectile, the nature of the cranial soft tissues damage, wound channel, gunshot skull fractures and associated intracranial injuries.
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