Cerebral and spinal neurological complications in patients with COVID-19: authors’ clinical experience and literature review
Objective ‒ to highlight the high probability and features of neurological complications in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Materials and methods. A retrospective cohort study was done of 57 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were treated at the COVID-location of the Department of Vascular and Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery and Neurology of the Clinical Emergency Hospital of Lviv in the period from June 29 to September 28, 2020 (91 day).
Results. Out of the 57 patients 14 (24.6 %) were selected by prospective analysis that had a clear association between COVID-19 pneumonia and neurological complications. Neurological complications of COVID-19 were manifested as ischemic stroke in 57.1 % of patients, encephalopathy with convulsions and without seizures ‒ in 35.7 %, polyneuropathy with tetraparesis, secondary purulent-inflammatory lesions of the spine ‒ in 7.2 %. Neurological complications occurred on average (20. 4 ± 6.1) days after the onset of the disease.
Conclusions. Lesions of the spine and structures in the spinal canal after coronavirus infection had a significant spread along the axis of the spine and severe course. The largest (57.1 %) was the proportion of ischemic stroke in the structure of neurological complications of COVID-19, which indicated the severity of the coronavirus infection and its aggressive effect on the nervous system. The effectiveness of treatment of COVID-19 neurological complications depends on the urgency of hospitalization of patients, as evidenced by the correlation between favorable treatment outcomes and the time from disease onst to admission to either therapeutic (r = + 0.37) or neurological department (r = +0.32).
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