Determining the etiology of cerebral stroke: from the most prevalent to rare causes

  • Yu.V. Flomin Medical Center Universal Clinic “Oberig”, Kyiv, Ukraine. Bogomolets National Medical University, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • T.V. Hetman National Scientific Center Academician Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • M.V. Guliaieva Medical Center Universal Clinic “Oberig”, Kyiv, Ukraine. Bogomolets National Medical University, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • I.R. Havryliv Medical Center Universal Clinic “Oberig”, Kyiv, Ukraine. Bogomolets National Medical University, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • O.S. Tsurkalenko Dnipro State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine
Keywords: cerebral stroke; ischemic cerebral stroke; stroke etiology; ischemic cerebral stroke subtype; atrial fibrillation; Fabry disease.


Cerebral stroke remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide as well as in Ukraine. After a cerebral stroke, there is an increased risk of a new cerebral stroke (9‒15 % within 1 year), and about a quarter of all cerebral stroke are recurrent. Up to 80 % of recurrent cerebral stroke can be avoided through lifestyle modifications (healthy diet, sufficient amount of physical activity, normalization of body weight, cessation of smoking and alcohol abuse) and control of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and atrial fibrillation. The key to effective secondary prevention is determining the etiology of cerebral stroke, which requires a primary examination in all cases and a number of additional tests as needed. The most common causes of ischemic cerebral stroke are cardiogenic embolism, atherosclerosis of the large cerebral arteries (macroangiopathy), and brain small vessels disease (microangiopathy), but approximately 1/3 of cerebral stroke have other, rear, determined cause or the cause remains unknown despite the appropriate workup (cryptogenic cerebral stroke).
In the review, we discuss modern approaches to ischemic cerebral stroke classification and determination of their etiology, from the most prevalent to the rarest causes. A careful search for the cause of cerebral stroke is particularly important in young patients (aged 18 to 50 years) with a high life expectancy. We have reviewed in detail the possibilities of screening for subclinical atrial fibrillation by long-term cardiac monitoring with implantable devices and the diagnosis of monogenetic causes of cerebral stroke, with a particular focus on Fabry disease, for which there is an effective treatment.


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How to Cite
Flomin, Y., Hetman, T., Guliaieva, M., Havryliv, I., & Tsurkalenko, O. (2022). Determining the etiology of cerebral stroke: from the most prevalent to rare causes . Ukrainian Interventional Neuroradiology and Surgery, 40(2), 14-40.