Endovascular and microsurgical treatment for spinal arteriovenous malformations. Our experience

  • Yu.M. Samonenko SO «Scientific-practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2146-220X
  • D.V. Shchehlov SO «Scientific-practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv
  • O.E. Sviridyuk SO «Scientific-practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv
  • A.V. Naida SO «Scientific-practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv
  • O.V. Slobodian SO «Scientific-practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv
Keywords: spinal arteriovenous malformation; dural fistula; neurological deterioration; spinal angiography.


Objective – to improve the treatment quality for patients with spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM).
Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of endovascular and surgical treatment of patients was made. In SO «Scientific-practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology NAMS of Ukraine» since 2005 till 2018 were operated 55 patients (34 (61.8 %) men and 21 (38.2 %) women). The age of patients ranged from 11 to 62 years (middle age is 45.3 years). The classification proposed by Anson and Spetzler in 1992 was used in order to divide patients into experimental groups: type I, arteriovenous fistula (AVF); type II, glomus intramedullary AVM; type III, juvenile AVM; and type IV, perimedullary AVF. Patients with type I were 36 (65.5 %), with ІІ type – 10 (18.2 %), with ІIІ type – 5 (9.0 %), with IV type – 4 (7.3 %). For diagnostics were used MRI and spinal angiography. The Aminoff–Logue scale was used for assessment of the neurological deficiency severity. Early postoperative complications (CSF) leakage, wound infection, early postoperative worsening) were counted.
Results. 12 (21.8 %) patients were treated using the microsurgical method and 43 (78.2 %) were treated endovascular. We used endovascular and microsurgical methods to treat patients with I type spinal AVM. Microsurgical intervention for 9 (33 %) patients was performed. Complete disconnection of fistula was achieved in 9 patients. Early postoperative complication (CSF leakage) was observed in 1 (11 %) case. Endovascular treatment was performed for 27 (67 %) patients. Total disconnection was achieved in 16 (59 %) cases, 17 patients (63 %) had early transient neurological worsening. Embolization is the first-line treatment for patients with type II AVM – 8 (80 %) patients. Complete obliteration of AVM was attained in 5 patients (62.5 %), 6 (75 %) patients suffered from early worsening of postoperative neurological symptoms. The microsurgical method was used in case of low risk of spinal cord injury in 2 patients (20 %), AVMs were excluded totally in 2 patients and in 1 patient neurological deterioration was stabilized. All patients with III type AVM were treated endovascular. AVM was obliterated complete in 1 patient (20 %). Three (60 %) patients had transient neurological deterioration. Endovascular method was used to treat 3 (75 %) patients with type IV AVM. Totally disconnection of AVM was achieved in 1 (33 %) patient. Super-selective catheterization of all conductive arteries was not possible. Neurological worsening was observed in 1 (33 %) patient.
Conclusions. Angiography is the first-line diagnostic method which permits to find the most effective and safe way (endovascular or/and microsurgical treatment) to disconnect AVM from spinal cord bloodstream. Microsurgical intervention helps to achieve eye-controlled total arteriovenous disconnection. Microsurgical technique usage leads to good neurological results – neurological improvement the following day after surgery in all cases of AVM type I treatment. The structure of AVM determines effectiveness, radicality, method of treatment and the level of feeder artery catheterization. The main goal of embolization to achieve the safe catheterization level of the afferent. Multimodal treatment, which includes endovascular and microsurgical methods, is the most effective in case of AVM II and III types.


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How to Cite
Samonenko, Y., Shchehlov, D., Sviridyuk, O., Naida, A., & Slobodian, O. (2019). Endovascular and microsurgical treatment for spinal arteriovenous malformations. Our experience. Ukrainian Interventional Neuroradiology and Surgery, 27(1), 32-40. https://doi.org/10.26683/2304-9359-2019-1(27)-32-40

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